AskDefine | Define peroxide

Dictionary Definition

peroxide

Noun

1 a viscous liquid with strong oxidizing properties; a powerful bleaching agent; also used as a disinfectant and (in strong concentrations) as an oxidant in rocket fuels [syn: hydrogen peroxide]
2 an inorganic compound containing the divalent ion -O-O- v : bleach with peroxide; "She must peroxide her hair-it looks unnaturally blond"

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

peroxide
  1. a divalent radical or anion containing two oxygen atoms linked by a covalent bond; any substance containing this group which yields hydrogen peroxide when treated with an acid
  2. hydrogen peroxide, especially an aqueous solution

Translations

chemical compound with two oxygen atoms
  • Japanese: 過酸化物 (かさんかぶつ)
aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide
  • Japanese: 過酸化水素水 (かさんかすいそすい)

Verb

  1. to treat (something) with hydrogen peroxide, especially hair in order to bleach it

Extensive Definition

A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. The simplest stable peroxide is hydrogen peroxide. Superoxides, dioxygenyls, ozones and ozonides compound are considered separately.

Organic chemistry

In organic chemistry, peroxide is a specific functional group or a molecule containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond (R-O-O-R'). When the other oxygen bears a hydrogen, it is called a hydroperoxide (R-O-O-H). The radical HOO· is known as hydroperoxide radical, and is thought to be involved in combustion of hydrocarbons in air.
Organic peroxides tend to decompose easily to free radicals of the form:
RO·
This makes them useful as catalysts for some types of polymerisation, such as the polyester resins used in glass-reinforced plastics. MEKP (methyl ethyl ketone peroxide) is commonly used for this purpose.
However, the same property also means that organic peroxides can accidentally initiate explosive polymerization in materials with unsaturated chemical bonds. Since peroxides can form spontaneously in some materials, some caution must be exercised with such "peroxide-forming materials." Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine are explosive organic peroxide compounds; TATP may be formed accidentally as a waste product in some reactions. In addition, many liquid ethers in the presence of air, light, and metal slowly (over a period of months) form ether peroxides (e.g., diethyl ether peroxide), which are extremely unstable. As a consequence, it is recommended that ether be stored over potassium hydroxide, which not only destroys peroxides but also acts as a powerful desiccant. Extreme care must be taken with samples showing signs of crystal growth or precipitates.
TATP is an easily synthesized, inexpensive, explosive compound that is difficult to detect by normal screening methods. Consequently, it is an explosive favored by terrorists. TATP was used in the 2005 London Underground bombings and the 2001 "shoe bomber." In 2002, a simple mass spectroscopy screening method was developed.http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/84/i04/html/8404scic.html

Inorganic chemistry

In inorganic chemistry, peroxide is the anion O22−. It is highly basic, and present in ionic compounds. Pure peroxides (containing only cations and the peroxide anions) are usually formed by burning alkali metals or alkaline earth metals in air or oxygen. Sodium peroxide Na2O2 is a typical example.
The peroxide ion contains two electrons more than the oxygen molecule. These two electrons, according to the molecular orbital theory, complete the two π* antibonding orbitals. This has as result a weakening of the bond strength of the peroxide ion and a greater length for the bond O-O : Li2O2 130 pm to BaO2 147 pm. Furthermore, the peroxide ion is diamagnetic.
The peroxides of the alkali metals and Ca, Sr and Ba are ionic. The peroxides of a number of electropositive metals such as Mg, the lanthanides and the uranyl-ion show an intermediary character, between ionic and covalent. The peroxides of metals such as Zn, Cd and Hg are mainly covalent.
Peroxides are powerful oxidizers, and usually fairly unstable. Ionic peroxides react with water and diluted acids to form hydrogen peroxide. Organic compounds are oxidized to carbonates, even at normal temperatures. Sodium peroxide is a powerful oxidator of metals, such as iron.
The oxides, peroxides and superoxides are closely related, forming a chain of oxygen ions of progressively higher oxidation number.
Barium peroxide is used in pyrotechnics and tracer ammunition, and was once used in the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide. Sodium peroxide is used as a carbon dioxide absorber and oxygen regenerator (e.g. in some submarines), through the reaction:
2Na2O2 + 2CO2 → 2Na2CO3 + O2
peroxide in Bosnian: Peroksidi
peroxide in German: Peroxide
peroxide in Spanish: Peróxido
peroxide in French: Peroxyde
peroxide in Croatian: Peroksidi
peroxide in Indonesian: Peroksida
peroxide in Italian: Perossido
peroxide in Lithuanian: Peroksidas
peroxide in Dutch: Peroxide
peroxide in Japanese: 過酸化物
peroxide in Low German: Peroxid
peroxide in Polish: Nadtlenki
peroxide in Portuguese: Peróxido
peroxide in Russian: Пероксиды
peroxide in Serbian: Пероксид
peroxide in Serbo-Croatian: Peroksid
peroxide in Finnish: Peroksidi
peroxide in Swedish: Peroxid
peroxide in Ukrainian: Перекис
peroxide in Chinese: 过氧化物

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

achromatize, blanch, bleach, bleaching powder, chlorine, decolor, decolorize, dim, discolor, drain, drain of color, dull, etiolate, fade, fume, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, lime, nitrogen tetroxide, oxalic acid, pale, sodium hypochlorite, sour, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, tarnish, tone down, wash out, white sour, whiten
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